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(Motorsport-Total.com) – Ten years ago Lewis Hamilton was honored at the Grand Prix of Hungary The kinetic energy recovery system (KERS) was the first step in electrification of the power units. On this occasion, we take a look at the hybrid power unit and its evolution into the most efficient internal combustion engine ever built.

Lewis Hamilton

© McLaren

Lewis Hamilton celebrated in Hungary (********************************************************************************) the first hybrid victory Zoom Download

The regulations let the teams in the season (****************************************************************************************) the ability to incorporate a hybrid component into its powertrain – a kinetic energy recovery system, better known by the acronym KERS. Today, the rules and regulations prescribe the use of a hybrid power unit. At that time, however, the teams were allowed to decide whether they wanted to use KERS or not.

Both Brawn and Red Bull, so the two teams, the first race of the season (********************************************************************************************************************************************). On the other hand, Mercedes had developed a hybrid system that works in the season (***************************************************************************************) was used by McLaren-Mercedes. Thus the victory of Lewis was on (********************************************************************************************************). July at the Hungarian Grand Prix (****************************************************************************) The first success for a hybrid car in Formula 1

In fact, KERS played an important role in this: Hamilton managed the crucial overtaking maneuver in the battle for second place against Mark Webber with the help of KERS , Shortly thereafter, the hitherto leading driver, Fernando Alonso, retired, so that Hamilton could take the lead and retract his tenth Grand Prix victory. It was the first hybrid triumph in the history of Formula 1.

How does today's hybrid system work?

The FIA ​​distinguishes between six different components in a Formula One power unit, four of which make up the hybrid system, also known as the Energy Recovery System (ERS). Two of these four ERS elements are electric motors that recover energy and release it in the form of extra power.

First, this is the kinetic motor-generator unit (MGU-K) that is used during braking recovers kinetic energy. The system is more advanced and more powerful than its predecessor of the year (****************************************************************************************), but the basic principle is similar to that of the KERS. The energy gained by the MGU-K is used to power the car.

The second electric motor is the engine-generator heat unit (MGU-H) that is located between the compressor and the turbine the turbocharger is located. At Mercedes, she nestles between the two cylinder banks of the engine. The turbocharger itself is driven by the exhaust gases of the engine. As soon as the compressor is running, there is excess energy in the exhaust stream that can be recovered by the MGU-H.

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Explained: How Hybrid works in Formula 1

Mercedes engine chief Andy Cowell explains how the hybrid technology in Formula 1 since its first win of the year 2009 has evolved More Formula 1 videos

This electrical energy can then be used to drive the compressor even when braking, which means that there is no turbo lag when the driver returns to the car Accelerator pedal rises

Both electric motors are connected by a three-phase cable to inverters that convert the electrical energy for the battery into DC voltage. The battery is referred to in this context as energy storage (ES). In it, the recovered energy is chemically stored in lithium-ion cells. The electric motors then convert rotational energy into electrical energy, which in turn is stored as chemical energy.

The entire hybrid system, or even the entire power unit, is controlled by the control electronics (CE for Control Electronics) controlled. This is housed together with the energy storage in a housing.

During the course of a race, the control electronics average more than (*************************************************************************************************) This includes, among other things, at what speed the electric motors have to run and how much power should be delivered. At the same time it ensures that the energy storage is optimized for peak performance.

How has the hybrid system evolved over the past decade?

The beginnings of the Formula 1 hybrid era go into the year (***********************************************************************************) back. At that time, an energy recovery system was used for development testing. The battery weighed (****************************************************************************************) kg and had an efficiency of (*********************************************************************) percent. The power electronics were water-cooled and housed in a bulky box that required a significant amount of space in the vehicle.

Two years later, KERS was used for the first time in a race. Until then, the system weighed significantly less. The energy store of the Systems weighed (************************************************************************************************************), 3 kilograms – more than (*********************************************************************************) percent less than two years earlier. At the same time, efficiency has increased (***************************************************************************************************)% increase. The power electronics now used an air instead of a water cooling and stuck in a much smaller carbon fiber case.

Sebastian Vettel

© Getty

A lot has happened since the beginning of the system Zoom 11 Download

The next big development step was the power unit regulation for the season (*******************************************************************************************). This introduced 1.6-liter V6 turbocharged engines featuring a high-performance hybrid system. In addition to the recovery of kinetic energy by the MGU-K when braking, the teams were now also able to collect energy with the MGU-H.

Since the first hybrid steps in the year (**************************************************************************************************) Percent reduced. Currently it is set to at least (******************************************************************************************************************************************. The power density of the battery cells has been increased by a factor of two and the energy storage device now achieves an efficiency level of (******************************************************************************************) Percent.

Why is the efficiency in the Formula 1 so important?
(********************************************************************) The efficiency of the power unit has an impact on the performance of the car on the track, both in terms of power output and weight savings. The power output of an engine is determined by two factors: the fuel flow and the efficiency of the engine.

In Formula 1, the maximum fuel flow is (*****************************************************************************************************. Accordingly, the teams can only influence the efficiency of the engine. A more efficient engine means a higher power output and therefore better performance on the track.

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# But that's not the only reason why the FIA ​​wants the active wheel suspension at the Canada Grand Prix (*****************************************************************************************) put a stop. The advanced but incredibly expensive technology is considered by the Commissioners to be technical assistance in the technical inspection and found to be non-compliant by all teams. The same applies to the cars that put on a traction control. Background: The systems have a hydraulic influence on the aerodynamics and / or partially deprive the pilot of control over the propulsion. The threat is that the Scuderia Italia backbenchers Michele Alboreto and Luca Badoer are the only starters in Montreal. The ban will continue until the beginning (***************************************************************************************) postponed, but then enforced. (************************************************************************) Photo Gallery

Another important aspect is the weight savings: According to the regulations, the teams are allowed a maximum of one race 110 Use kilograms of gas. However, the weight of the fuel does not count toward the minimum weight of the vehicle. This means that if you need less fuel than the maximum allowed, you can start with a lighter car, which translates directly into faster lap times. For every five kilograms saved, the car drives about two-tenths per lap faster.

(************************************************************************) Get the hybrid system out? (*************************************************************************************) The connection between ERS and the engine is the key to getting the most out of a power unit. That's why the teams concentrate on this task every race weekend. It's all about finding out how to recover and release the energy in the best possible way.

Before every race weekend, the ideal set-ups and scenarios are calculated in computer simulations. These will then be tested in the Driving Simulator (Driver in Loop, DiL) for the first time to create a profile for this particular route. Each track places different demands on the ERS system for energy recovery and delivery. Accordingly, the DiL simulator is a good first step in gaining a better understanding of the results of computational computations.

Simulator, Brackley

© Mercedes

In the simulator the first test steps are taken Zoom 1411564824 Download

Then the profile developed in the DiL simulator is put to the test loaded and tested to the hardest. This step is about what the technology can do. As soon as the work on the test bench is completed, it goes on the track to see what it looks like in reality.

When preparing the ERS for a track, everything depends on the amount of braking power and the curve performance of the car. It's about finding out how much full throttle there will be per round. Because this determines how long the MGU-K has to run, how much energy it needs from the batteries and how long the MGU-H energy will absorb and how much energy they can store in the batteries.

The findings from the Friday training will be analyzed overnight before being used in qualifying on Saturday. Here the battery can be completely emptied. During the race, the battery remains in the same state of charge.

For comparison: In an electric car, the battery is constantly refilled and emptied. Here it is different: The ERS recovers as much energy as possible, stores it at short notice during the round and then uses it at the best possible time.

How relevant are KERS and ERS technologies for road vehicles?
39 KERS, ERS, MGU-H and MGU-K – Formula One engineers just love their shortcuts. It is not surprising that these letters are of little importance outside the Formula One world. However, the technologies behind it are also very relevant there.

In the world of road cars, systems such as KERS or the MGU-K are known as regenerative braking systems. The car recovers some of the kinetic energy when braking and uses it to charge the battery, which is then used to power the car.

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no update yet. *************************** For Canada, the first is expected. Can the competition pack in directly? -1-Videos

The technology behind the MGU-H is better known as electric booster compressor or e-booster. Also in the field of high-voltage systems, there are similar developments in series production as in Formula 1. Why? In an electrical system, the energy loss manifests itself as heat, which is not appreciated in a car.

Loss can be reduced by lowering the current. In order to reduce the current at the same power, the voltage must be increased. In Formula 1, the ERS batteries are now at almost 1. (**********************************************************************************************************************) Volt arrived. Modern road vehicles usually run up to (************************************************************************************) Volt. In the future, however, the voltage will increase and approach that in today's Formula 1.

While the evolution in Formula 1 and the automotive industry is very similar, there is one difference: in the formula 1, these technologies are used to make the cars faster. On the road, they make sure to reach a higher range with the same amount of energy.