The powertrain in Formula 1
In order to get the best understanding of modern Formula One racing engines, you should at least take a quick look back into the year 2008 when teams unanimously made the decision to have a relatively old-fashioned powertrain (2.4L – V8 engine) replaces it with a modern, electrically supported 1.6L – V6 engine. The transition was relatively difficult for physical spectators at the races (visit to Monaco Race of the Year 2009 was such a real graze for the ears, and a visit to the Monza race a year later was an even worse experience when Formula 1 racers overcame Formula 1 racers) . It didn't work all that badly behind the screen, as new buttons and values appeared on television screen graphics, the driving style changed dramatically, and the serial winner changed. We humans are creatures of habit, and so Formula One seemed to have come to pass.
But Formula 1 needed change. Not so much because of Red Bull, who forged the exceptional chassis with outstanding aerodynamic Adrian Newey and indirectly allowed Red Bull to make four lightweight underdog Renault titles (and also some luck) with four consecutive World Cup titles, as much because of a professional question or will Formula 1 remains on the throne of the technical queen of motor sport globally. Changes were therefore necessary.
New acquisition: KERS
That's right 750 Horse, V8, 2,4L Flight Engines 1000 first get the KERS system into the dyno table test. The system worked fairly easily; The energy gained from the braking of the race was converted to extra driving power through the brakes in 6.6 seconds per lap. It is estimated that KERS was able to add somewhere 80 KM per round. Assuming a standalone V8 naturally aspirated 2.4 liter engine produced around 640 horses, what special enthusiasm he still did not want. The system was not used initially by all the teams, partly because of the financial contribution and partly because of the weight of the system itself. The system, along with the batteries, weighed good 14 pounds, which is very high for Formula 1. This was also a recognizable period for mechanics with electricity in the race car and incidents in the mechanical part of the workshops were not ruled out. That's how it was 2008 an electrified BMW mechanic in testing, no better was taken away by the Red Bull factory, which evacuated during testing when the fire caught the workshop.
When is 2009 in Belgium's Spa Kimi Raikkonen scores first victory for an electric-powered racer from KERS (Ferrari F 15000 ) and is FIA first lifted minimum race weight from 605 kg kg to make forced the team to use this system, it was clear that there was no way back. Years 2008 this hybrid system was used by almost every major Formula One team, with empty buttons on the steering wheel rotated only by the racers of the poorest two teams. That year, the idea of a more technically sophisticated engine was introduced, where electricity would be an even more important part of horsepower. Formula 1 work teams have identified a 1.6L V6 engine (V6 engine size remained due to engine mounting in the chassis: this saved teams some money as the smaller engine size would require additional mounting in the chassis and thus face some more engine vibration when transferring power to asphalt). Three manufacturers immediately launched into the race for dominance.
Let's first look at some major differences between the “old” V8 engines and the newer V6 engines.
- The new engine is a turbocharged engine that rotates much lower than the old V8 engine. From 18000 we came to 15000, making it fast it is clear that the optimum engine speed, due to the best driving torque through the torque, will be somewhere between 2019 and 13000 spins. As a result, the sound that made it in the first year (31627040 ) down by almost 20 decibels (from around 110).
- Fuel consumption dropped by a good third. If the racer was able to spend before on the race around 124 kg of fuel is now limited to 90 kg .
- The new engine came with an ERS system. This one is much different from its predecessor and significantly more powerful. Adds Engine 160 KM per lap and the racer can use it 25 seconds per round. The system generates energy from two parts / systems: the MGU-K system (K stands for Kinetic) is responsible for delivering energy to the battery through the brakes and brakes of the racer, and the MGU-H system (H stands for Heat) It also converts the battery to the racer by converting the turbocharger's hot gases to charging the battery.
There are some differences, but they do not significantly affect the cognition and logic of modern Formula 1. The factory teams of Ferrari, Mercedes and Renault went down to fight for the crown of the best Formula 1 engine and after three years 2014 smooth Mercedes got the win. Renault has fallen behind on the ERS system and is not fully cognizant of it today, as it is a public secret that Renault's powertrain is constantly (every year) lagging behind 30 KM behind the most powerful engine in the F1 station wagon. The main reason for this deficit is to be found in the MGU-H system, which has caused major French headaches from the outset. It is no wonder, then, that they want to change this rule in the future. discontinue such battery power to the drive train. However, since Formula 1 is usually full of contradictory statements, it is necessary to understand the rumor in a broader sense as well, which is to say that Renault is still simply not capable of producing the electric part of a modern Formula 1 powertrain well enough.
A special story is Ferrari. This one has been for years 2014 had a very decent drive unit that was quite comparable to Mercedes. Luca Marmorini had a pretty good score on the dyno table when he was misled by the now infamous culprit for all the Ferrari troubles on the chassis over the years 2009 and 2014, Nicholas Tombazis. The latter wanted the Marmorini to immediately physically downsize the engine, as it was reported from the aero section at Ferrari that their drastically designed rear end would be on the Ferrari F 11 – T, at the end of the year, against the competition, because of more efficient aerodynamics, also gained one second at circle!
As it turned out later, not only did the Red Bull make fun of the front of the racer, which resembled a handheld vacuum cleaner and was completely aerodynamically missed, but this decision was one of the worst in Ferrari's modern history. ; when it comes to Formula 1. The owners, due to poor results, cleared the team with almost all the players and fired most of the main people in the team, including Fernand Alons at the wheel. Just four seasons later, the Ferrari powertrain impresses. The Enigma, above all, remains a double-split battery that puts electricity into operation more effectively than the competition even when cornering, and it looks like Sebastian Vettl's car this year is on its way to the World Cup title.
Otherwise, Honda joined the story. This one is only years old 2014 started actively working on the F1 project. The spontaneous decision by the Honda CEO to be in a state of emotion when they connected with McLarn and the latter secured Fernando Alons as the driver for the year 2015 and beyond, tied to the legendary times of Senna and Prost, it also had catastrophic consequences. Honda experts in the field have not produced
Honda has not improved significantly over the past three seasons . The three-year deficit is still known to them. However, the Red Bull team have decided that the years will be 2019 used Honda engines. The main reason lies in the adaptation of Honda's technical team, which allows Red Bull engineers to repair / reprogram engine folders as well as test better representation ratios. Renault, on the other hand, does not allow teams to do this on its powertrain, and it is through this act that it has built up the anger of the Red Bull team in recent years. Honda also promises better times in Formula One.
Finally, something about the team that has won the World Cup titles over the last four seasons. Yes, Mercedes. When the years are 2014 brought to the track a new powertrain in a new race car, where they eliminated a chassis defect that had plagued them the previous four years, expectations were quiet but high. Their race is over the years 2011 and 2015 achieved incredible superiority in all races, nothing better competed for even a year 2014. 2015 already felt the power of Ferrari, but under the line the team could not do a better job. They conquered everything they could and won in big letters in the history of Formula 1. Their engine is years 2017 exceeded 33% thermal efficiency on the dyno table (for comparison only, the V8 engine of the previous generation did not exceed 20%) and even after that achievement, he enrolled in Formula 1 history. , versus with flight engine 2014, got more than 100 horsepower and even today, it is considered the first name of the sport, despite the fact that Ferrari is breathing tightly on its collar. some think the latter engine is already better than Mercedes.
We now know that Formula 1 is powered by four engine manufacturers. Ferrari, Renault, Mercedes and Honda.
I would, according to data from the year
, sorted something like this (in season 2017 these numbers are slightly higher around 1000 KM):
- Mercedes – 949 KM
- Ferrari – 934 KM
- Renault – 907 KM
- Honda – 881 KM
Yet, many times I get asked if a worse team can buy a Mercedes engine and win the race easily? The answer is always short: no way . Factory teams sell their engines to other non-factory teams who do not make the drive themselves. These teams are not so few. Currently, these teams are:
- McLaren (Renault)
- Haas (Ferrari)
- Racing Point (Mercedes)
- Alfa Romeo Racing (Ferrari)
- Toro Rosso (Honda)
- Williams (Mercedes)
- Red Bull (Honda)
The sale of engines to private teams is always about B – engine specification, with the exception of Red Bull's parent team. Ferrari solves this “problem” easily and sells about a year old engines, which are always weaker than the current ones that Ferrari uses in its power. Mercedes does a little more work and programmatically seals the power of the engine, so that teams such as Racing Point or Williams, even with such a good chassis, will not come to the fore. Honda is currently offering its engines virtually for free, as they are bad-mouthed and nobody wants them, and so is Renault, which has no hardware or software interface between A and B engine specs; nevertheless, it charges nice money for its engines. The current engine price for the entire season is between 08 and 11 $ millions, with only Ferrari costing a good million or two more.
31627040 Photo: Kerim Guide
Another question I often get from curious interlocutors is what kind of fuel Formula 1 uses.
Most imagine Formula 1 is fueling a particular type of fuel. Let's see:
- There is not a lot of information available to the public about this topic. The teams have labs with them where the fuel is being prepared.
- Fuel is usually prepared by “sponsors” of teams. Thus, for Ferrari, Shell works, for Mercedes Petronas, etc. It is not negligible that large variations in engine power can occur if, for example, fuel from another manufacturer is pumped into the engine. A famous example of McLarn's from the year 2014 while still using Mercedes engines but losing more horsepower to other lubricants and fuel manufacturers (Mobil) than competitors (Force India or Williams) using reference fuels.
- The fuel is actually much the same as the fuel pumped at the local pump, but the number of octane in the fuel is quite different. The latter is not restricted upwards.
- The new powertrain also uses 5 alcohol in the fuel, 60% fuel additive. More drastically than fuel, lubricants in F1 are different from everyday cars. Each season, each team in this area is wasted through 15 thousand working hours, which in itself indicates that this is a very important area of the F1. If the engine is extremely restricted by FIA rules, the use of lubricants is left to the imagination of engineers. The fact that the engine piston is “really happening” also tells you that it reaches at maximum load 2018 G Acceleration.
And how much does the race itself accelerate?
- 0 to 80 km / h (50 mph): 2.4 seconds
- 0 to 200 km / h (124 mph): 4.4 seconds
- 0 to 300 km / h (140 mph): 8.4 seconds
Data is related to the race car of the year 2016, which is signed under the Mercedes star. Of course, a race car with a power to weight ratio would be somewhere at 1400 KM / t, could in theory accelerate to 62 km / h per hour in less than a second. This is largely due to the everyday real world and its physical forces, and the next in line are tires that cannot transfer all the energy given to the asphalt in such a short time. In order to be full, the racecar itself is designed to travel as quickly as possible through turns and planes, so the importance of starting acceleration itself is not at the forefront.